Leibnitz: Chain Rule

German-speaking pioneers of computer science have been active for quite some time.

Even the first integrated circuit or chip did not originate in the USA. Werner Jacobi, who studied at the Technical University of Munich, developed it at Siemens and applied for a patent in 1949. The first transistors were not developed by Bell Labs in 1948, but by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld, who discovered the principle of the field-effect transistor in Leipzig in 1925 and then patented it in the USA. Today, almost all transistors are field-effect transistors. From 1936 to 1941, Konrad Zuse developed the world’s first programmable general-purpose computer. AI theory and the entire field of theoretical computer science can be traced back to Kurt Gödel, who showed in 1931-34 that there are fundamental limits to computing and therefore to AI.

And modern AI with deep differentiable neural networks ultimately goes back to Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz’s chain rule from 1676.